Lighting is the process of adding light sources and reflections to a scene. It requires both an artist and a physicist because the job requires both art and the knowledge of how light reflects, refracts and absorbs. Lighting is much more complex than it appears. There are a few types of lighting techniques that are required for different types of scenes. For example, a point light, or an omni-light, originate from a single source and are good for objects such as lit candles because their light shines out in all directions from the one wick. On the other hand, there are other types such as ambient lighting, which is where a single source casts soft rays out in all directions. It’s very unusual that a scene would include only one lighting technique, such as point lighting or spotlighting.
Rendering is the process at the end of production. All details are carefully enhanced by a rendering program in that process. Even though details are shown during the animation process, they are barely shown in high resolution. Rendering brings out the ones such as small particles, and adds the more realistic lighting, color and texture.
Composting, which is the process of overlaying several layers to create a more complex 3D video. A 3D render is never finished unless it has been composited because compositing adds richness and beauty to any scene and it’s where scenes are color-corrected and enhanced. Compositing is he final stage of rendering and the last stage of post-production before the product is ready to be distributed.